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Contra Bass Gallery

Take a tour around our Gallery for rare items related to great double bass players and instruments.

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Engraving of Dragonetti

Domenico Dragonetti (1763 - 1846) the noted Italian double bassist, changed the status of the double bass during the course of his career. There are various stories of how Dragonetti came into possession of the famous Gasparo da Salo bass. The fascinating and highly commendable biography "Domenico Dragonetti In England" by Fiona M. Palmer (Clarendon Press Oxford 1997) seems to offer the most plausible account; Because of Dragonetti's unprecedented virtuosity as a soloist, attractive offers of work were made from both London and Moscow. As remuneration for renouncing the offers and remaining as principal bassist with the orchestra of the Ducal Chapel of St Mark's in Venice (an orchestra of considerable importance) a decree made in 1791 gave Dragonetti a financial gratuity. 

Similarly it is reputed that Dragonetti was presented with an instrument made by Gasparo da Salo (1542 - 1609) by the Benedictine nuns who occupied St.Peter's monastery in Vicenza where at the time Dragonetti lived and played in the Grand Opera. In the Palmer biography a footnote refers to a 1906 account made by C.P.A. Berenzi who suggests that the instrument may have been made for the monks of St Peter's, Vicenza, by Gasparo da Salo, and acquired by the procurators of St Mark's to entice Dragonetti to remain in their employ.

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Engraving of Dragonetti

This rare stipple engraving of Dragonetti as a young man with his Gasparo da Salo bass was formerly in the collection of Raymond Elgar and is by Francesco Bartolozzi (1728 - 1815). It is signed F. Bartolozzi RA.

Another example is housed in the Royal College of Music, London.

Dragonetti Engraving 
©Houska Collection


Sculpture of Dragonetti

Domenico Dragonetti ( Born Venice 07th April 1763. Died London 16th April 1846 ) was one of the greatest virtuosi of the double bass who has ever lived. He composed numerous works for solo double bass and was a major contributor to the development of the convex bow that was named after him.

This rare bronzed parian cast (32cm) of Dragonetti was published in London in May 1834 by Jean-Pierre Dantan Jr. (1800-1869), the celebrated sculptor of musicians in caricature. Formerly in the collection of Raymond Elgar this model is pictured in his book "More About The Double Bass" (First published by the author 1963).

Another example is housed at Paris's Musee de la Musique.

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Vuillaume Scroll

An exceedingly rare scroll (32cm) circa 1840 in untouched (no varnish or cogs) condition made and signed in ink by J.B. Vuillaume (1798-1875).

Vuillaume was one of the foremost French stringed instrument makers of the 19th century. A great maker, copier, businessman and inventor who directed the many workers in his employ in innumerable ideas and experiments that contributed to the development of the violin and bow. Inventor of the Octobass in 1849, a monster of an instrument at 3.65 meters high Vuillaume was particularly proud of his double basses.

Made from a choice piece of maple with a stunning even-medium flame that runs horizontally through, and with strong-even grain lines that positively seem to radiate out from the wood surface, this scroll was in all probability used as a shop sign or for a shop window display. There is nothing that can surpass the superb carving and proportions of the turns of the volute and its eye. The chamfers and the beautiful detail of the back ridge and button are of the highest calibre. One can feel music in this piece of wood. Wonderful indeed.

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Vuillaume Scroll
Vuillaume Scroll
©Houska Collection


Death Mask of Bottesini

Death Mask of Bottesini

A rare "Face mask after death" of Giovanni Bottesini.

Bottesini was a tall distinguished figure with a moustache and striking black hair that was swept back to reveal a prominent forehead. No doubt caused by the painful and lingering nature of his death, the face mask portrays an emaciated expression and solemnity untypical of his normal countenance. Formerly in the collection of Raymond Elgar.

The greatest double bass virtuoso of the 19th century and a musician revered the world over as ëthe Paganini of the double - bass'. In a career spanning 50 years, Bottesini was an international star as soloist, composer and conductor. An extract from The Musical Times' obituary in August 1889.

Bottesini Death Mask
©Houska Collection

 

Giovanni Bottesini (Born 22nd December 1821 in Crema, Lombardy, Italy. Died Parma 07th July 1889) was in demand everywhere from England to Russia to Turkey and must have earned a small fortune during his lifetime. Unfortunately he was unable to manage his finances and did not make provision for old age. Consequently he died penniless.

According to an 1886 account in "Gazetta Musicale di Milano" by the biographer Cesare Lisei, Bottesini contracted "angina pectoris" in Vienna during 1840, however there is no other evidence to confirm this, and if it were true it must have been a very mild condition, for Bottesini lived on for another 49 years. He finally died in a coma from a fever that had been brought on by cirrhosis of the liver.  Because of the huge national and world-wide sense of public and private grief over the loss of this distinguished artist the municipality of Parma arranged and paid for a grand funeral that was attended by all the principal citizens of the district.  The funeral carriage was followed by an enormous procession of mourning friends, colleagues and ordinary people and the streets were fully lined along the funeral route.  Bottesini was buried in the Parma cemetary. 

There is a large tomb in the Parma chapel and personal and honorary memorabilia are housed in the small museum in the library of the Parma Conservatory of Music (of which he was appointed Director only six months prior to his death) and at the Crema Museum.

As a soloist Bottesini really was the "Pagannini of the double bass". He was widely acclaimed in many countries in both Europe and America.

As a conductor he was highly talented and was even chosen by Verdi (his friend and mentor) to premier his opera "Aida" in Cairo, Egypt.

As a composer Bottesini wrote in the "Bel Canto" style of Bellini and Donizetti. Although many of his compositions are not published he is credited with numerous works including operas, a Requiem Mass, oratorios, string quartets and a Grand Quintetto. For solo double bass there is a large variety of music that includes concertos, operatic fantasies, melodies, elegies and themes and variations with either piano or orchestral accompaniment. There is a tutor ( now obsolete ), several duets for two double basses and the famous Grand Duo Concertante written for violin and double bass with orchestral accompaniment.

The French model bow that is most used today was named Bottesini pattern after this famous player who championed its use.

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Koussevitsky Lithograph

Year 2001 marked the 50th anniversary of Koussevitsky's death.

Serge Alexandrovitch Koussevitsky was born to a poor but musical family in the central Russian town of Vishny-Volochek (now Kalinin) on 26th July 1874. From a very early age he showed great musical ability and started lessons on the viola, followed by the cello and later the piano. At the age of thirteen he had his first lesson on the double bass. Within a year he had mastered the rudiments and was already being described as a genius.

In 1888 realizing that his career was destined to be in music he applied to study composition at the Moscow Conservatory. Scholarships were available but only on three instruments the horn, the trombone and the double bass. So it was with the double bass that Koussevitsky entered. With a desire and resolve to portray the double bass as a solo instrument Koussevitsky worked hard on his technique. After only five months he had learnt the entire five-year program. Conducting and composition were now included in his studies and a great many doublebass recitals and concerts were performed. He graduated in 1894 and joined a sectional position at the Moscow Imperial Bolshoy Theatre. Within a year he had been appointed to the post of leader. This was soon followed by his appointment to take over the post at the Conservatory at which he had studied from his Czech bass professor ‚ Joseph Rambousek (1845-1901).

Over the next ten years Koussevitzky performed solo recitals throughout Russia and in Europe. He quickly achieved celebrity for these virtuostic performances and by the beginning of the twentieth-century he was hailed throughout Europe as the finest exponent of the instrument.

After marriage in 1905 the challenge of conducting gradually became the focus of Koussevitsky's attention. It was in that year that he was engaged to conduct the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. One critic wrote "It is incredible that so relatively inexperienced a person can have so much certainty and confidence. The world will hear more of Mr Koussevitsky".

By 1909 Koussevitzky had formed his own orchestra and had started a music-publishing house that became favoured by most of the leading Russian composers of the day, including Stravinsky, Rachmaninov and Prokofiev.

In 1917, Koussevitzky was appointed director of the newly formed State Symphony Orchestra, which he conducted for three years. In 1918 he was appointed director of the Grand Opera in Moscow.

In 1921 Koussevitzky moved to Paris where he founded the famous "Concerts Symphoniques Koussevitsky", which introduced to the world new music by Maurice Ravel and Arthur Honegger. In that same year he made appearances at the Royal Albert Hall in London.

The pinnacle of Koussevitzky's career was to be from 1924 onwards, following an invitation to become principal conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. For the first few years of his tenure Koussevitzky's explosive temper made the orchestral players cold and hostile towards him but as he urged them "Don't just play music, make it sing!" they finally came to admire and respect him.

Besides writing a few transcriptions and a composition for orchestra Koussevitzky contributed several original compositions to the double bass repertoire. In 1902 he wrote his four short pieces for double- bass (Chanson Triste, Valse Minature, Humoresque and Andante) and in 1903 he wrote his famous Concerto Op.3.

Koussevitsky Lithograph

Koussevitzky was a glamorous, egocentric figure. His partnership as conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra lasted an unprecedented twenty-five years. Music in Boston revolved around him. His overwhelming personality made every concert an experience.

Koussevitsky's solo double bass recitals and concerts gave serious significance to the instrument.

He died at the age of 77 in Boston on 4th June 1951.

In 1962 widow Olga Koussevitzky presented his 1611 Amati double bass to Garry Karr after hearing a New York Town Hall recital by him. She was convinced that the spirit of her late husband lived on in Karr. Year 2001 marks the 50th anniversary of Koussevitzky's death.

This wonderful pencil lithograph (framed 29.2cm x 38.2cm) of Koussevitsky conducting The Boston Symphony Orchestras is by the talented German artist Eugen Spiro (1874 - 1972).

It is signed in pencil by the artist and autographed by the great conductor along the bottom - Serge Koussevitsky 1948.

Spiro is well recognized for his paintings and drawings of landscapes and for his life sketches and portraits of famous conductors and musicians.

Eugen Spiro
©Lebrecht Collection

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Eugene Cruft Autograph

Eugene Cruft Photograph

An autographed edition by the author of his now legendary tutor, "The Eugene Cruft School of Double Bass Playing" published in 1966 by Oxford University Press, that combined method with orchestral repertoire. The full length and characteristic image is to be found on the page directly opposite the Yehudi Menuhin foreword in which he describes Cruft as "One of the most elegant and dexterous exponents of the art of double bass playing".

The signature is dedicated to John Walton (1906-1991), a professor of double bass at the Royal Academy of Music, London and successor to Cruft in his position of principal double bass with the BBC Symphony Orchestra.

Eugene Cruft Photograph ©Axel Poignant Archive

Eugene Cruft Autograph

Eugene John Cruft (born London 1887, died London June 1976) was the premier double bass player in Great Britain for over half a century. He was the principal double bassist with the BBC Symphony Orchestra from 1929-1949, principal bassist with Covent Garden Orchestra between 1949-1952 and principal bassist with the Bath Festival Orchestra between 1959-1965. In addition to these positions he was associated with numerous symphony and chamber orchestras, he was treasurer of the Royal Society of Musicians for 30 years and he was professor of the double bass at the Royal College of Music from 1946-1957.

Cruft was the honorary orchestral organising secretary for the Coronations of George V1's in 1937 and that of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953. In this capacity he assembled both of the orchestras entirely from leaders and principals, performed himself as the principal bass and acted as the treasurer.

In 1953 he was made an OBE.

Eugene Cruft came from a line of notable musicians. His father was the principal cellist with the Royal Carl Rosa Opera Company and an original member of the London Symphony Orchestra when it was founded in 1904. His mother was a ballet dancer. 

Cruft was coached by the USA professor Noel Morrell before being awarded, by Charles Villiers Stanford (1852-1924) in 1906, an open a scholarship to study at the Royal College of Music with Claude Hobday. His first professional engagement was with the theatre of the Old Vic where he received 26shillings a week. In 1909 Cruft became a member of the original Beecham Symphony Orchestra and in 1910 he was elected to become a member of the London Symphony Orchestra.

In 1912 the LSO was engaged to perform 28 concerts in a 3-week tour of the USA and Canada. It was the first such tour of a large British orchestra in North America. In an interview - "The Food of Memories" ‚ given by Christopher Warren and released as a tribute on BBC radio just over a month following his death Cruft recounts, "The tour commenced only 5 days after my marriage. The orchestra of 100 players left Euston for Liverpool where they embarked on the White Star liner - Baltic. The tours departure date had been advanced by a few days for reasons connected with the New York organisation, so the orchestra's passage reservations had been transferred to the Baltic from another White Star ship - The Titanic. We were actually in Chicago when the news of the Titanic disaster became known. Had we have gone on that ship then there would have been an entirely different profession now."

The year 1912 saw another memorable tour for Cruft. It was a six-week engagement with the Beecham Symphony Orchestra conducted by Pierre Monteux (1875-1964) at the Kroll Oper. House (extant 1924-31) in Berlin to accompany the Diaghilev Ballet. Cruft was able to experience sell-out productions of Igor Stravinsky's (1882-1971) ballets Petrushka and The Firebird danced by Najinsky, Najinska and Karsavina.

During the 1914-18 war while assigned to motor transport division within the Army Service Corps, Cruft helped recruit musicians to entertain the troops. Posted to the 2nd Battalion of the Rifle Brigade he fought with them at Passchendale and on the Somme.

To create work after the war Cruft helped form a new orchestra - The British Symphony Orchestra. Shortly after a command performance at Buckingham Palace the orchestra's conductorship was taken over by Dr Adrian Boult (1889-1983) and it became increasingly busy and successful. Besides playing with numerous radio orchestras, such as The Savoy Havana Band and The 2LO Wireless Orchestra, Cruft regularly broadcast his own arrangements of popular music with his own Cruft Octet. The band was directed by Cruft himself, from the saxophone.

Cruft's varied and colourful career took him through the numerous symphony orchestras already mentioned above plus The London Light Orchestra and The Royal Albert Hall Orchestra before he was honoured in 1929 with the appointment of principal bass of the BBC Symphony Orchestra. On Friday 28th July 1944 Cruft was present in the orchestra at the Promenade concert (transferred because of the war from The Royal Albert Hall to The Corn Exchange, Bedford) when Sir Henry Wood (1869-1944) laid down his baton for the last time after conducting Beethoven's 7th Symphony.

In a musical career that stretched back over 70 years Cruft considered that one of his greatest successes was his ability to entertain and liven up any dull moment. He reminisces in the Warren interview. "I took my bass and walked into the centre of the studio and I just turned it upside down, placed it on my chin and balanced it and walked to the end of the studio. During that time the drummer who was a great friend of mine gave a marvellous roll on the drum and when he saw me bring the bass down to the ground he finished with a terrific symbols crash and everything like that and of course that was wonderful ‚ everyone so enjoyed it".

Cruft died a few days before his 89th birthday. At the thanksgiving service held at the Holy Sepulchre Church, Holborn Viaduct, London, Sir Adrian Boult, one of Cruft's greatest friends and family friend, conducted Elgar's Serenade For Strings.

A musician of many talents. A distinguished instrumentalist, teacher, conductor and impresario, Eugene Cruft will always be remembered by myself (a former pupil of his at the 1974 National Youth Orchestra of Great Britain courses) and all those who knew him as being an absolute gentleman.

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Advertising Postcards

Double Bass Advertising Postcards

Double Bass Advertising Postcards

Two delightful advertising postcards from a set of eight that were produced by Gisborne, Boisell & Co circa 1900 from images taken by ClichÈ Nadar.

Each card in the series shows a musical instrument that was either manufactured or supplied by Gisborne, Boisell & Co. In addition to the "Lamy-type" French four string double bass depicted here, a young child or children can be seen playing an ophicleide, a Russian bassoon, a sousaphone, a natural trumpet and a tuba.

At the foot of each card are the name and address of the firm:

Gisbourne, Boisell & Co,
Musical Instrument Makers,
14 Gray's Inn Road, London W-C
Manufactory, Vere Street, Birmingham, England.

In the comprehensive reference book An Index Of Musical Wind Instrument Makers by Lyndesay G. Langwill (sixth edition) published in 1980 by the author, the firm of Gisbourne is recorded as being extant in some form or another between 1839 and circa 1914. From 1852 they were makers to the Army. Between 1894-1902 Gisbourne & Co manufactured instruments at Vere Street, Birmingham. Although Boisell is not recorded in the book, one must presume that the "& Co" of Gisbourne & Co refers to their amalgamation with Boisell who's address was 14 Gray's Inn Road, London. An identical card in the Houska Collection to the one showing a small boy peering into the inside of the double bass bears testament to this for the name at the foot of the card reads "Boisell & Co" only. Interestingly this name is crossed out in red ink and replaced, again in the same red type-set, with "Gisbourne, Boisell & Co" directly above it. In addition, the painted advertising to the bottom rib of the double bass reads "Boisell & Co, London" without making reference to Gisbourne. This suggests that the cards were originally commissioned by Boisell & Co.

Gisbourne, Boisell & Co Postcards 
©Houska Collection

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Outsized Frog

Double Bass Outsized Frog
Outsized Frog
©Houska Collection

Click here for
dimension details

Made by the English bow maker Brian Tunnicliffe in 1983 this fascinating French style bass bow frog has the gargantuan width of 28mm instead of the standard 19-22mm. Explanation as to why this outsized frog was created is recounted by Tunnicliffe. "It was just a misinterpretation of a customers order. Jan Wallin, a Swedish player and member of the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra had ordered a Sartory style frog to replace an odd Pfretchner frog that had been fitted to his original Sartory stick. Unfortunately a misunderstanding between us regarding width-height terminology resulted in the frog being made 28mm wide instead of 28mm deep".

An embarrassed Tunnicliffe ended the tale by chiding himself, "I should have made a drawing - it's the first rule of engineering - then I would have realised that something wasn't quite right".

Wallin found the frog a little too difficult and cumbersome to hold and the massive ribbon of hair seemed to choke the sound rather than increase it. The frog was sent back to Tunnicliffe to exchange for a more conventional sized one. It was presented to the Houska Collection on 5th October 2000.

In a way its a shame that this outsized frog didn't really work. The simple misunderstanding in the measurements could easily have revolutionised bass playing as we know it (in terms of sound production, articulation etc), and then Tunnicliffe would have been talking patent numbers.

Link to more information about Brian Tunnicliffe.

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Bottesini Musical Quotation & Autograph

Bottesini Musical Quotation & Autograph

A rare autograph musical quotation signed "Gio Bottesini" and dated "London 22 Maggio 1852".
4 bars written on an album leaf (18.6cm x 17.7cm), disbound. In excellent state.

"In June 1852 Bottesini headed the double bass section at two Exeter-Hall performances of Beethoven's Choral Symphony conducted by Hector Berlioz, who scored a decided triumph".

Just handling this wonderful document as once touched by the legendary artist himself sends tingles down one's spine. Inspiration enough for any bass player.


Giovanni Bottesini (Born Crema, 22nd Dec 1821, Died Parma 7th July 1889) travelled widely throughout his career. Bottesini's first tour outside Europe would have been to Cuba in 1846 where he performed with the Havana Italian Opera Company. The mid-nineteenth century transatlantic passage from Europe would typically have been by steamer. These were wooden hulled sailing ships with steam engines and a pair of enormous side paddle wheels. Whenever possible the sails were used to enhance speed and to save on expensive coal. Many of the vessels were without heating, running water, toilets and once all the ice had melted, fresh food. With 10 days being the absolute minimum to cross the rough North Atlantic Ocean, the passage was quite inhospitable.

Fuelled by the great demand for fast and safe Atlantic passage and with the Industrial Revolution at its zenith, developments in shipping in the final four decades of the nineteenth century were frequent. Iron hulls were introduced, quickly followed by those made from the much stronger, more workable steel. Engines became more efficient and powerful and propellers were introduced to replace the paddle wheel and sail. Each new ship seemed to be larger and faster than the last and each would boast a higher standard of luxury and comfort for the wealthy traveller. Towards the end of Bottesini's career, he would have walked the promenade decks and experienced plush lounges, walnut-panelled smoke rooms and a dining salon or dining alcoves in which fine foods and champagne were served. His spacious stateroom would have included a private bathroom that had the most modern conveniences of hot and cold running water, electric light and steam heat.

This rare autograph musical quotation signed "Gio Bottesini" is dated "London 22 Maggio 1852".

In an endeavour to write a short paragraph about the visits and tours that Bottesini made to England and in particular what he did in the actual year of writing this quotation, I quickly discovered that the small amount of bibliography currently available contained numerous factual variances on many aspects of his life and career. Vagaries abound. Who's right? Here are my findings.

According to the general consensus Bottesini made his first visit to London in late 1848, however in which capacity he appeared there is unsurety. Martin states that it was not as a soloist but as a conductor of the music festivals held in Birmingham and Buckingham. Brun refers to the account by Lisei, which places the first appearance venue as the Exeter Hall, London. The capacity in which he appeared is not mentioned. Elgar writes that he "took part" in a concert given by M. Alary, agreeing with Brun that the venue was the Exeter Hall. 

As a player Bottesini's UK debut is generally accepted as being at the Exeter Hall on June 26th 1849 where he performed chamber music with the "Musical Union", a group of musicians that had been formed by John Ella (1805-1888) a writer, violinist, critic and impresario. Brun suggests an earlier date by extracting May 30th 1849 from the November 29th 1851 edition of the Illustrated London News as the date at which Bottesini "played" at "Anderson's Annual Academy". Seeking more information on this significant date and location I wrote to Brun who confessed that he had no further information of what "Anderson's Annual Academy" was or where it was located. My own research proved fruitless so please write to tony@contrabass.co.uk if you have any information at all on "Anderson's Annual Academy".

At the Union concert Bottesini's own composition The Carnival of Venice (air and variations) and a quartet by the composer George Onslow (1784-1853), in which Bottesini played the cello part are recognized and credited as being performed to great acclaim. Martin and Brun make no mention of Bottesini performing any solos. Slatford and Heyes write that he played "some solos". In Grove's Dictionary of Music & Musicians (fifth edition) the article credited to T.Percy Hudson states that in addition to some "prominent solo passages" in the Onslow Quintet he performed "a solo". Indeed both Slatford and Hayes agree with Hudson that it was a quintet and not a quartet that was performed. 

After the concert, the Philharmonic Society (a society began in 1813 for professional musicians whose aim was the encouragement of music, especially instrumental) engaged Bottesini to perform in a series of concerts under the baton of Sir Michael Costa (1808-1884). Likewise the flamboyant French composer-conductor Louis Antoine Jullien (1812-1860) engaged him for his Drury Lane Promenade Concerts and for a tour of the main UK provincial cities. The successful partnership with Jullien motivated alternate trips between England and America for a number of years. Brun gives specific dates for performances in the UK until 1853 while Elgar, although offering no evidence, states that the Atlantic crossings lasted until 1855. Martin writes that it was Costa and not Jullien who conducted on "a" tour of the United States. 

Martin offers us, quite plausibly, that Bottesini took up residency in Golden Square, Piccadilly during the 1850's although no one else proffers this information. Brun, by far offers us the most amount of in-depth research. The years surrounding our 1852 musical autograph are peppered with significant events. Here reproduced with the kind permission of Paul Brun are those events; 

'On 22 May 1851, Bottesini played a double bass solo (possibly his Concertino) at the Musical Union. On 26 May, he played the Concertino at the Philharmonic Society concert, the first of eight performances he made at the society over the years. On 12 November 1851, he wrote in London a Duetto for cello and double bass, now owned by the Stanford University. In June 1852, he headed the double bass section at two Exeter-Hall performances of Beethoven's Choral Symphony conducted by Hector Berlioz, who scored a decided triumph.

On 30 May 1853, he played his Concertino at the fourth Philharmonic Society concert, London, in which Berlioz conducted several of his own compositions. On that occasion, according to the French composer, Bottesini displayed his usual extraordinary dexterity in a concerto that was quite remarkable, pleasant to listen to and well orchestrated'.

from Paul Brun's excellent new book "A New History of the Double Bass."

Many other visits, often annually, brought Bottesini to England. His last visit is cited in unison (at last) by our bibliographers as being in 1887. During his stay his last major work, an oratorio, The Garden of Olivet to words by Joseph Bennett was first performed at the Norwich Festival. Brun is the only bibliographer to state that the date was the 12th October 1887 and that Bottesini conducted the performance himself.

November 2000 ©Anthony Houska

Bibliography

A New History of the Double Bass by Paul Brun. Published by Paul Brun Productions 2000. Chapter 10 Biographical Notices pages 229-230.

New Grove Dictionary of Music & Musicians. First Edition 1980. Edited by Stanley Sadie.
Article credited to Rodney Slatford.

Grove's Dictionary of Music & Musicians. Fifth Edition. Edited by Eric Blom. Published by The Macmillan Press Ltd. Reprinted 1975.
Article credited to T. Percy Hudson (Canon Pemberton).

More About The Double Bass by Raymond Elgar. Published by Raymond Elgar 1963.

In Search Of Bottesini by Thomas Martin. Reprinted with permission of the International Society of Bassists in six parts in The British Double Bass Society's Newsletters September 1994 through to December 1995.

First Bass by David Heyes. Published by Orpheus Publications in the Double Bassist issue No1, Spring/Summer 1996.

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music by Michael Kennedy. Published by Oxford University Press. Fourth Edition.

Lost Liners by Robert D.Ballard and Rick Archbold. A Hyperion / Madison Press Book. First published 1997 by Hyperion.

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