Domenico Dragonetti (1763 -
1846) the noted Italian double bassist, changed the status
of the double bass during the course of his career. There
are various stories of how Dragonetti came into possession
of the famous Gasparo da Salo bass. The fascinating and
highly commendable biography "Domenico Dragonetti In
England" by Fiona M. Palmer (Clarendon Press Oxford
1997) seems to offer the most plausible account; Because
of Dragonetti's unprecedented virtuosity as a soloist, attractive
offers of work were made from both London and Moscow. As
remuneration for renouncing the offers and remaining as
principal bassist with the orchestra of the Ducal Chapel
of St Mark's in Venice (an orchestra of considerable importance)
a decree made in 1791 gave Dragonetti a financial gratuity.
Similarly it is reputed that
Dragonetti was presented with an instrument made by Gasparo
da Salo (1542 - 1609) by the Benedictine nuns who occupied
St.Peter's monastery in Vicenza where at the time Dragonetti
lived and played in the Grand Opera. In the Palmer biography
a footnote refers to a 1906 account made by C.P.A. Berenzi
who suggests that the instrument may have been made for
the monks of St Peter's, Vicenza, by Gasparo da Salo, and
acquired by the procurators of St Mark's to entice Dragonetti
to remain in their employ.
This rare stipple engraving of Dragonetti
as a young man with his Gasparo da Salo bass was formerly
in the collection of Raymond Elgar and is by Francesco Bartolozzi
(1728 - 1815). It is signed F. Bartolozzi RA.
Another example is housed in the Royal
College of Music, London.
Domenico Dragonetti ( Born Venice 07th April 1763. Died London 16th
April 1846 ) was one of the greatest virtuosi of the double
bass who has ever lived. He composed numerous works for solo
double bass and was a major contributor to the development
of the convex bow that was named after him.
This rare bronzed parian cast (32cm) of Dragonetti was published
in London in May 1834 by Jean-Pierre Dantan Jr. (1800-1869),
the celebrated sculptor of musicians in caricature. Formerly
in the collection of Raymond Elgar this model is pictured
in his book "More About The Double Bass" (First
published by the author 1963).
Another example is housed at Paris's Musee de la Musique.
exceedingly rare scroll (32cm) circa 1840 in untouched (no
varnish or cogs) condition made and signed in ink by J.B.
was one of the foremost French stringed instrument makers
of the 19th century. A great maker, copier, businessman and
inventor who directed the many workers in his employ in innumerable
ideas and experiments that contributed to the development
of the violin and bow. Inventor of the Octobass in 1849, a
monster of an instrument at 3.65 meters high Vuillaume was
particularly proud of his double basses.
from a choice piece of maple with a stunning even-medium flame
that runs horizontally through, and with strong-even grain
lines that positively seem to radiate out from the wood surface,
this scroll was in all probability used as a shop sign or
for a shop window display. There is nothing that can surpass
the superb carving and proportions of the turns of the volute
and its eye. The chamfers and the beautiful detail of the
back ridge and button are of the highest calibre. One can
feel music in this piece of wood. Wonderful indeed.
A rare "Face mask
after death" of Giovanni Bottesini.
Bottesini was a tall distinguished
figure with a moustache and striking black hair that was swept
back to reveal a prominent forehead. No doubt caused by the
painful and lingering nature of his death, the face mask portrays
an emaciated expression and solemnity untypical of his normal
countenance. Formerly in the collection of Raymond Elgar.
The greatest double bass virtuoso
of the 19th century and a musician revered the world over
as ëthe Paganini of the double - bass'. In a career spanning
50 years, Bottesini was an international star as soloist,
composer and conductor. An extract from The Musical Times'
obituary in August 1889.
Bottesini Death Mask
Bottesini (Born 22nd December 1821 in Crema, Lombardy, Italy.
Died Parma 07th July 1889) was in demand everywhere from England
to Russia to Turkey and must have earned a small fortune during
his lifetime. Unfortunately he was unable to manage his finances
and did not make provision for old age. Consequently he died
According to an 1886 account in "Gazetta
Musicale di Milano" by the biographer Cesare Lisei, Bottesini
contracted "angina pectoris" in Vienna during 1840,
however there is no other evidence to confirm this, and if
it were true it must have been a very mild condition, for
Bottesini lived on for another 49 years. He finally died in
a coma from a fever that had been brought on by cirrhosis
of the liver. Because of the huge national and world-wide
sense of public and private grief over the loss of this distinguished
artist the municipality of Parma arranged and paid for a grand
funeral that was attended by all the principal citizens of
the district. The funeral carriage was followed by an
enormous procession of mourning friends, colleagues and ordinary
people and the streets were fully lined along the funeral
route. Bottesini was buried in the Parma cemetary.
There is a large tomb in the Parma chapel and
personal and honorary memorabilia are housed in the small
museum in the library of the Parma Conservatory of Music (of
which he was appointed Director only six months prior to his
death) and at the Crema Museum.
As a soloist Bottesini
really was the "Pagannini of the double bass". He
was widely acclaimed in many countries in both Europe and
As a conductor
he was highly talented and was even chosen by Verdi (his friend
and mentor) to premier his opera "Aida" in Cairo,
As a composer Bottesini wrote in the "Bel
Canto" style of Bellini and Donizetti. Although many
of his compositions are not published he is credited with
numerous works including operas, a Requiem Mass, oratorios,
string quartets and a Grand Quintetto. For solo double bass
there is a large variety of music that includes concertos,
operatic fantasies, melodies, elegies and themes and variations
with either piano or orchestral accompaniment. There is a
tutor ( now obsolete ), several duets for two double basses
and the famous Grand Duo Concertante written for violin and
double bass with orchestral accompaniment.
French model bow that is most used today was named Bottesini
pattern after this famous player who championed its use.
2001 marked the 50th anniversary of Koussevitsky's
Serge Alexandrovitch Koussevitsky was born to
a poor but musical family in the central Russian town of Vishny-Volochek
(now Kalinin) on 26th July 1874. From a very early
age he showed great musical ability and started lessons on
the viola, followed by the cello and later the piano. At the
age of thirteen he had his first lesson on the double bass.
Within a year he had mastered the rudiments and was already
being described as a genius.
In 1888 realizing that his career was destined
to be in music he applied to study composition at the Moscow
Conservatory. Scholarships were available but only on three
instruments the horn, the trombone and the double bass. So
it was with the double bass that Koussevitsky entered. With
a desire and resolve to portray the double bass as a solo
instrument Koussevitsky worked hard on his technique. After
only five months he had learnt the entire five-year program.
Conducting and composition were now included in his studies
and a great many doublebass recitals and concerts were performed.
He graduated in 1894 and joined a sectional position at the
Moscow Imperial Bolshoy Theatre. Within a year he had been
appointed to the post of leader. This was soon followed by
his appointment to take over the post at the Conservatory
at which he had studied from his Czech bass professor ‚ Joseph
Over the next ten years Koussevitzky performed
solo recitals throughout Russia and in Europe. He quickly
achieved celebrity for these virtuostic performances and by
the beginning of the twentieth-century he was hailed throughout
Europe as the finest exponent of the instrument.
After marriage in 1905 the challenge of conducting
gradually became the focus of Koussevitsky's attention. It
was in that year that he was engaged to conduct the Berlin
Philharmonic Orchestra. One critic wrote "It is incredible
that so relatively inexperienced a person can have so much
certainty and confidence. The world will hear more of Mr Koussevitsky".
By 1909 Koussevitzky had formed his own orchestra
and had started a music-publishing house that became favoured
by most of the leading Russian composers of the day, including
Stravinsky, Rachmaninov and Prokofiev.
In 1917, Koussevitzky was appointed director
of the newly formed State Symphony Orchestra, which he conducted
for three years. In 1918 he was appointed director of the
Grand Opera in Moscow.
In 1921 Koussevitzky moved to Paris where he
founded the famous "Concerts Symphoniques Koussevitsky",
which introduced to the world new music by Maurice Ravel and
Arthur Honegger. In that same year he made appearances at
the Royal Albert Hall in London.
The pinnacle of Koussevitzky's career was to
be from 1924 onwards, following an invitation to become principal
conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. For the first
few years of his tenure Koussevitzky's explosive temper made
the orchestral players cold and hostile towards him but as
he urged them "Don't just play music, make it sing!"
they finally came to admire and respect him.
Besides writing a few transcriptions and a composition
for orchestra Koussevitzky contributed several original compositions
to the double bass repertoire. In 1902 he wrote his four short
pieces for double- bass (Chanson Triste, Valse Minature, Humoresque
and Andante) and in 1903 he wrote his famous Concerto Op.3.
Koussevitzky was a glamorous, egocentric
figure. His partnership as conductor of the Boston Symphony
Orchestra lasted an unprecedented twenty-five years. Music
in Boston revolved around him. His overwhelming personality
made every concert an experience.
Koussevitsky's solo double bass
recitals and concerts gave serious significance to the instrument.
He died at the age of 77 in Boston
on 4th June 1951.
In 1962 widow Olga Koussevitzky
presented his 1611 Amati double bass to Garry Karr after hearing
a New York Town Hall recital by him. She was convinced that
the spirit of her late husband lived on in Karr. Year 2001
marks the 50th anniversary of Koussevitzky's death.
This wonderful pencil lithograph
(framed 29.2cm x 38.2cm) of Koussevitsky conducting The Boston
Symphony Orchestras is by the talented German artist Eugen
Spiro (1874 - 1972).
It is signed in pencil by the artist
and autographed by the great conductor along the bottom -
Serge Koussevitsky 1948.
Spiro is well recognized for his
paintings and drawings of landscapes and for his life sketches
and portraits of famous conductors and musicians.
edition by the author of his now legendary tutor, "The Eugene
Cruft School of Double Bass Playing" published in 1966 by
Oxford University Press, that combined method with orchestral
repertoire. The full length and characteristic image is to
be found on the page directly opposite the Yehudi Menuhin
foreword in which he describes Cruft as "One of the most elegant
and dexterous exponents of the art of double bass playing".
The signature is dedicated to John Walton (1906-1991),
a professor of double bass at the Royal Academy of Music,
London and successor to Cruft in his position of principal
double bass with the BBC Symphony Orchestra.
Eugene Cruft Photograph ©Axel Poignant
Eugene John Cruft (born London 1887, died London
June 1976) was the premier double bass player in Great Britain
for over half a century. He was the principal double bassist
with the BBC Symphony Orchestra from 1929-1949, principal
bassist with Covent Garden Orchestra between 1949-1952 and
principal bassist with the Bath Festival Orchestra between
1959-1965. In addition to these positions he was associated
with numerous symphony and chamber orchestras, he was treasurer
of the Royal Society of Musicians for 30 years and he was
professor of the double bass at the Royal College of Music
Cruft was the honorary orchestral organising
secretary for the Coronations of George V1's in 1937 and that
of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953. In this capacity he assembled
both of the orchestras entirely from leaders and principals,
performed himself as the principal bass and acted as the treasurer.
In 1953 he was made an OBE.
Eugene Cruft came from a line of notable musicians.
His father was the principal cellist with the Royal Carl Rosa
Opera Company and an original member of the London Symphony
Orchestra when it was founded in 1904. His mother was a ballet
Cruft was coached by the USA professor Noel
Morrell before being awarded, by Charles Villiers Stanford
(1852-1924) in 1906, an open a scholarship to study at the
Royal College of Music with Claude Hobday. His first professional
engagement was with the theatre of the Old Vic where he received
26shillings a week. In 1909 Cruft became a member of the original
Beecham Symphony Orchestra and in 1910 he was elected to become
a member of the London Symphony Orchestra.
In 1912 the LSO was engaged to perform 28 concerts
in a 3-week tour of the USA and Canada. It was the first such
tour of a large British orchestra in North America. In an
interview - "The Food of Memories" ‚ given by Christopher
Warren and released as a tribute on BBC radio just over a
month following his death Cruft recounts, "The tour commenced
only 5 days after my marriage. The orchestra of 100 players
left Euston for Liverpool where they embarked on the White
Star liner - Baltic. The tours departure date had been advanced
by a few days for reasons connected with the New York organisation,
so the orchestra's passage reservations had been transferred
to the Baltic from another White Star ship - The Titanic.
We were actually in Chicago when the news of the Titanic disaster
became known. Had we have gone on that ship then there would
have been an entirely different profession now."
The year 1912 saw another memorable tour for
Cruft. It was a six-week engagement with the Beecham Symphony
Orchestra conducted by Pierre Monteux (1875-1964) at the Kroll
Oper. House (extant 1924-31) in Berlin to accompany the Diaghilev
Ballet. Cruft was able to experience sell-out productions
of Igor Stravinsky's (1882-1971) ballets Petrushka and The
Firebird danced by Najinsky, Najinska and Karsavina.
During the 1914-18 war while assigned to motor
transport division within the Army Service Corps, Cruft helped
recruit musicians to entertain the troops. Posted to the 2nd
Battalion of the Rifle Brigade he fought with them at Passchendale
and on the Somme.
To create work after the war Cruft helped form
a new orchestra - The British Symphony Orchestra. Shortly
after a command performance at Buckingham Palace the orchestra's
conductorship was taken over by Dr Adrian Boult (1889-1983)
and it became increasingly busy and successful. Besides playing
with numerous radio orchestras, such as The Savoy Havana Band
and The 2LO Wireless Orchestra, Cruft regularly broadcast
his own arrangements of popular music with his own Cruft Octet.
The band was directed by Cruft himself, from the saxophone.
Cruft's varied and colourful career took him
through the numerous symphony orchestras already mentioned
above plus The London Light Orchestra and The Royal Albert
Hall Orchestra before he was honoured in 1929 with the appointment
of principal bass of the BBC Symphony Orchestra. On Friday
28th July 1944 Cruft was present in the orchestra
at the Promenade concert (transferred because of the war from
The Royal Albert Hall to The Corn Exchange, Bedford) when
Sir Henry Wood (1869-1944) laid down his baton for the last
time after conducting Beethoven's 7th Symphony.
In a musical career that stretched back over
70 years Cruft considered that one of his greatest successes
was his ability to entertain and liven up any dull moment.
He reminisces in the Warren interview. "I took my bass and
walked into the centre of the studio and I just turned it
upside down, placed it on my chin and balanced it and walked
to the end of the studio. During that time the drummer who
was a great friend of mine gave a marvellous roll on the drum
and when he saw me bring the bass down to the ground he finished
with a terrific symbols crash and everything like that and
of course that was wonderful ‚ everyone so enjoyed it".
Cruft died a few days before his 89th
birthday. At the thanksgiving service held at the Holy Sepulchre
Church, Holborn Viaduct, London, Sir Adrian Boult, one of
Cruft's greatest friends and family friend, conducted Elgar's
Serenade For Strings.
A musician of many talents. A distinguished
instrumentalist, teacher, conductor and impresario, Eugene
Cruft will always be remembered by myself (a former pupil
of his at the 1974 National Youth Orchestra of Great Britain
courses) and all those who knew him as being an absolute gentleman.
advertising postcards from a set of eight that were produced
by Gisborne, Boisell & Co circa 1900 from images taken
by ClichÈ Nadar.
Each card in the series shows a musical instrument
that was either manufactured or supplied by Gisborne, Boisell
& Co. In addition to the "Lamy-type" French four string
double bass depicted here, a young child or children can be
seen playing an ophicleide, a Russian bassoon, a sousaphone,
a natural trumpet and a tuba.
At the foot of each card are the name and address
of the firm:
Gisbourne, Boisell & Co,
Musical Instrument Makers,
14 Gray's Inn Road, London W-C
Manufactory, Vere Street, Birmingham, England.
In the comprehensive reference
book An Index Of Musical Wind Instrument Makers by Lyndesay
G. Langwill (sixth edition) published in 1980 by the author,
the firm of Gisbourne is recorded as being extant in some
form or another between 1839 and circa 1914. From 1852 they
were makers to the Army. Between 1894-1902 Gisbourne &
Co manufactured instruments at Vere Street, Birmingham. Although
Boisell is not recorded in the book, one must presume that
the "& Co" of Gisbourne & Co refers to their amalgamation
with Boisell who's address was 14 Gray's Inn Road, London.
An identical card in the Houska Collection to the one showing
a small boy peering into the inside of the double bass bears
testament to this for the name at the foot of the card reads
"Boisell & Co" only. Interestingly this name is crossed
out in red ink and replaced, again in the same red type-set,
with "Gisbourne, Boisell & Co" directly above it. In addition,
the painted advertising to the bottom rib of the double bass
reads "Boisell & Co, London" without making reference
to Gisbourne. This suggests that the cards were originally
commissioned by Boisell & Co.
Boisell & Co Postcards
Made by the English
bow maker Brian Tunnicliffe in 1983 this fascinating French
style bass bow frog has the gargantuan width of 28mm instead
of the standard 19-22mm. Explanation as to why this outsized
frog was created is recounted by Tunnicliffe. "It was just
a misinterpretation of a customers order. Jan Wallin, a Swedish
player and member of the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra
had ordered a Sartory style frog to replace an odd Pfretchner
frog that had been fitted to his original Sartory stick. Unfortunately
a misunderstanding between us regarding width-height terminology
resulted in the frog being made 28mm wide instead of 28mm
An embarrassed Tunnicliffe ended the tale by
chiding himself, "I should have made a drawing - it's the
first rule of engineering - then I would have realised that
something wasn't quite right".
Wallin found the frog a little too difficult
and cumbersome to hold and the massive ribbon of hair seemed
to choke the sound rather than increase it. The frog was sent
back to Tunnicliffe to exchange for a more conventional sized
one. It was presented to the Houska Collection on 5th
In a way its a shame that this outsized frog
didn't really work. The simple misunderstanding in the measurements
could easily have revolutionised bass playing as we know it
(in terms of sound production, articulation etc), and then
Tunnicliffe would have been talking patent numbers.
Link to more
information about Brian Tunnicliffe.
"In June 1852 Bottesini headed
the double bass section at two Exeter-Hall performances of
Beethoven's Choral Symphony conducted by Hector Berlioz, who
scored a decided triumph".
Just handling this wonderful document
as once touched by the legendary artist himself sends tingles
down one's spine. Inspiration enough for any bass player.
Giovanni Bottesini (Born Crema,
22nd Dec 1821, Died Parma 7th July 1889) travelled
widely throughout his career. Bottesini's first tour outside
Europe would have been to Cuba in 1846 where he performed
with the Havana Italian Opera Company. The mid-nineteenth
century transatlantic passage from Europe would typically
have been by steamer. These were wooden hulled sailing ships
with steam engines and a pair of enormous side paddle wheels.
Whenever possible the sails were used to enhance speed and
to save on expensive coal. Many of the vessels were without
heating, running water, toilets and once all the ice had melted,
fresh food. With 10 days being the absolute minimum to cross
the rough North Atlantic Ocean, the passage was quite inhospitable.
Fuelled by the great demand for fast and safe
Atlantic passage and with the Industrial Revolution at its
zenith, developments in shipping in the final four decades
of the nineteenth century were frequent. Iron hulls were introduced,
quickly followed by those made from the much stronger, more
workable steel. Engines became more efficient and powerful
and propellers were introduced to replace the paddle wheel
and sail. Each new ship seemed to be larger and faster than
the last and each would boast a higher standard of luxury
and comfort for the wealthy traveller. Towards the end of
Bottesini's career, he would have walked the promenade decks
and experienced plush lounges, walnut-panelled smoke rooms
and a dining salon or dining alcoves in which fine foods and
champagne were served. His spacious stateroom would have included
a private bathroom that had the most modern conveniences of
hot and cold running water, electric light and steam heat.
This rare autograph musical quotation signed
"Gio Bottesini" is dated "London 22 Maggio
In an endeavour to write a short paragraph
about the visits and tours that Bottesini made to England
and in particular what he did in the actual year of writing
this quotation, I quickly discovered that the small amount
of bibliography currently available contained numerous factual
variances on many aspects of his life and career. Vagaries
abound. Who's right? Here are my findings.
According to the general consensus Bottesini
made his first visit to London in late 1848, however in which
capacity he appeared there is unsurety. Martin states that
it was not as a soloist but as a conductor of the music festivals
held in Birmingham and Buckingham. Brun refers to the account
by Lisei, which places the first appearance venue as the Exeter
Hall, London. The capacity in which he appeared is not mentioned.
Elgar writes that he "took part" in a concert given by M.
Alary, agreeing with Brun that the venue was the Exeter Hall.
As a player Bottesini's UK debut is generally
accepted as being at the Exeter Hall on June 26th
1849 where he performed chamber music with the "Musical Union",
a group of musicians that had been formed by John Ella (1805-1888)
a writer, violinist, critic and impresario. Brun suggests
an earlier date by extracting May 30th 1849 from
the November 29th 1851 edition of the Illustrated
London News as the date at which Bottesini "played" at "Anderson's
Annual Academy". Seeking more information on this significant
date and location I wrote to Brun who confessed that he had
no further information of what "Anderson's Annual Academy"
was or where it was located. My own research proved fruitless
so please write to email@example.com
if you have any information at all on "Anderson's Annual Academy".
At the Union concert Bottesini's own composition
The Carnival of Venice
(air and variations) and a quartet by the composer George
Onslow (1784-1853), in which Bottesini played the cello part
are recognized and credited as being performed to great acclaim.
Martin and Brun make no mention of Bottesini performing any
solos. Slatford and Heyes write that he played "some solos".
In Grove's Dictionary of Music & Musicians (fifth edition)
the article credited to T.Percy Hudson states that in addition
to some "prominent solo passages" in the Onslow
Quintet he performed "a solo". Indeed both Slatford and
Hayes agree with Hudson that it was a quintet and not a quartet
that was performed.
After the concert, the Philharmonic Society
(a society began in 1813 for professional musicians whose
aim was the encouragement of music, especially instrumental)
engaged Bottesini to perform in a series of concerts under
the baton of Sir Michael Costa (1808-1884). Likewise the flamboyant
French composer-conductor Louis Antoine Jullien (1812-1860)
engaged him for his Drury Lane Promenade Concerts and for
a tour of the main UK provincial cities. The successful partnership
with Jullien motivated alternate trips between England and
America for a number of years. Brun gives specific dates for
performances in the UK until 1853 while Elgar, although offering
no evidence, states that the Atlantic crossings lasted until
1855. Martin writes that it was Costa and not Jullien who
conducted on "a" tour of the United States.
Martin offers us, quite plausibly, that Bottesini
took up residency in Golden Square, Piccadilly during the
1850's although no one else proffers this information. Brun,
by far offers us the most amount of in-depth research. The
years surrounding our 1852 musical autograph are peppered
with significant events. Here reproduced with the kind permission
of Paul Brun are those events;
'On 22 May 1851, Bottesini played a double
bass solo (possibly his Concertino) at the Musical Union.
On 26 May, he played the Concertino at the Philharmonic Society
concert, the first of eight performances he made at the society
over the years. On 12 November 1851, he wrote in London a
Duetto for cello and double bass, now owned by the Stanford
University. In June 1852, he headed the double bass section
at two Exeter-Hall performances of Beethoven's Choral Symphony
conducted by Hector Berlioz, who scored a decided triumph.
On 30 May 1853, he played his Concertino
at the fourth Philharmonic Society concert, London, in which
Berlioz conducted several of his own compositions. On that
occasion, according to the French composer, Bottesini displayed
his usual extraordinary dexterity in a concerto that was quite
remarkable, pleasant to listen to and well orchestrated'.
from Paul Brun's
excellent new book "A New History of the Double Bass."
Many other visits, often annually, brought
Bottesini to England. His last visit is cited in unison (at
last) by our bibliographers as being in 1887. During his stay
his last major work, an oratorio, The
Garden of Olivet to words by Joseph Bennett was first
performed at the Norwich Festival. Brun is the only bibliographer
to state that the date was the 12th October 1887
and that Bottesini conducted the performance himself.
November 2000 ©Anthony Houska
A New History of the Double Bass by Paul Brun.
Published by Paul Brun Productions 2000. Chapter 10 Biographical
Notices pages 229-230.
New Grove Dictionary of Music & Musicians.
First Edition 1980. Edited by Stanley Sadie.
Article credited to Rodney Slatford.
Grove's Dictionary of Music & Musicians.
Fifth Edition. Edited by Eric Blom. Published by The Macmillan
Press Ltd. Reprinted 1975.
Article credited to T. Percy Hudson (Canon Pemberton).
More About The Double Bass by Raymond Elgar.
Published by Raymond Elgar 1963.
In Search Of Bottesini by Thomas Martin. Reprinted
with permission of the International Society of Bassists in
six parts in The British Double Bass Society's Newsletters
September 1994 through to December 1995.
First Bass by David Heyes. Published by Orpheus
Publications in the Double Bassist issue No1, Spring/Summer
The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music by Michael
Kennedy. Published by Oxford University Press. Fourth Edition.
Lost Liners by Robert D.Ballard and Rick Archbold.
A Hyperion / Madison Press Book. First published 1997 by Hyperion.